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Making Words Possessive When They End in Sibilants
The issue of making nouns possessive can be tricky when those nouns end in sibilants (s, ch, sh, z, x).
Can you spot an error in any of the following sentences?
1. Bill Sanchez's report stunned the entire committee.
2. The Sanchez's are going on vacation.
3. The Sanchez's vacation will begin on Friday.
4. Jane William's assistant has been working for the company for three years.
5. The Williams's are painting their house.
6. The Williams' new car is parked in the driveway.
Only the first sentence is correct. The report belongs to Bill Sanchez. To make
a singular noun possessive, we simply add an apostrophe and an s.
Sentences 2 and 5 are incorrect because the names Sanchez and Williams need
to be plural but not possessive. To make a word plural when it ends in a sibilant,
we add es. Thus, the sentences should have been written this way:
The Sanchezes are going on vacation.
The Williamses are painting their new house.
Sentence 3 is incorrect because the vacation belongs to the entire family, not
to one person only. We must therefore make the name plural before making it possessive:
The Sanchezes' vacation will last for two months.
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Sentence 4 incorrectly places the apostrophe before the s that is part of the
name Williams. We should have written "Jane Williams's assistant."
In sentence 6, the name Williams needs to be both plural and possessive. To
make the plural form of a noun ending in a sibilant, we add es. Thus, we should
have written "the Williamses' new car."
Notice that when we are dealing with a plural noun that ends with s, we do
not add the second s to make it possessive. Most style manuals call for the
additional s, however, on singular words ending in s, as in "Paula Jones's
While we have used surnames as our examples above, these rules apply also to
all nouns that end in sibilants, as in these examples:
All of the churches' steeples had been damaged by the high winds.
Both of the old thrush's wings were now featherless.
The soprano's voice is the highest in the four-part chorus; the bass's is the
See if you can identify errors in plurals and possessives in the following sentences.
Some sentences may be correct. (The answers are below.)
1. The centerpiece on the banquet table is a gift from the Marsh's.
2. Joseph Birch's computer arrived at his office on Friday.
3. The Barneses' house overlooks the lake.
4. The Rogers' will be out of the country until early July.
5. Finches' bills are conical, the perfect shape for crushing seeds.
6. Over generations of selective breeding, fur farmers changed the foxes red
coat to the more commercially desirable white.
3. correct (Add es to the name Barnes to make it plural; then add the apostrophe
to make it possessive.)
4. Rogerses (the plural, but not possessive, form of the name Rogers)
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